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Tips 'N Tricks

Squeeze the most performance out of xpressive with these tips and tricks.

Compile Patterns Once And Reuse Them

Compiling a regex (dynamic or static) is far more expensive than executing a match or search. If you have the option, prefer to compile a pattern into a basic_regex<> object once and reuse it rather than recreating it over and over.

Since basic_regex<> objects are not mutated by any of the regex algorithms, they are completely thread-safe once their initialization (and that of any grammars of which they are members) completes. The easiest way to reuse your patterns is to simply make your basic_regex<> objects "static const".

Reuse match_results<> Objects

The match_results<> object caches dynamically allocated memory. For this reason, it is far better to reuse the same match_results<> object if you have to do many regex searches.

Caveat: match_results<> objects are not thread-safe, so don't go wild reusing them across threads.

Prefer Algorithms That Take A match_results<> Object

This is a corollary to the previous tip. If you are doing multiple searches, you should prefer the regex algorithms that accept a match_results<> object over the ones that don't, and you should reuse the same match_results<> object each time. If you don't provide a match_results<> object, a temporary one will be created for you and discarded when the algorithm returns. Any memory cached in the object will be deallocated and will have to be reallocated the next time.

Prefer Algorithms That Accept Iterator Ranges Over Null-Terminated Strings

xpressive provides overloads of the regex_match() and regex_search() algorithms that operate on C-style null-terminated strings. You should prefer the overloads that take iterator ranges. When you pass a null-terminated string to a regex algorithm, the end iterator is calculated immediately by calling strlen. If you already know the length of the string, you can avoid this overhead by calling the regex algorithms with a [begin, end) pair.

Use Static Regexes

On average, static regexes execute about 10 to 15% faster than their dynamic counterparts. It's worth familiarizing yourself with the static regex dialect.

Understand syntax_option_type::optimize

The optimize flag tells the regex compiler to spend some extra time analyzing the pattern. It can cause some patterns to execute faster, but it increases the time to compile the pattern, and often increases the amount of memory consumed by the pattern. If you plan to reuse your pattern, optimize is usually a win. If you will only use the pattern once, don't use optimize.

Common Pitfalls

Keep the following tips in mind to avoid stepping in potholes with xpressive.

Create Grammars On A Single Thread

With static regexes, you can create grammars by nesting regexes inside one another. When compiling the outer regex, both the outer and inner regex objects, and all the regex objects to which they refer either directly or indirectly, are modified. For this reason, it's dangerous for global regex objects to participate in grammars. It's best to build regex grammars from a single thread. Once built, the resulting regex grammar can be executed from multiple threads without problems.

Beware Nested Quantifiers

This is a pitfall common to many regular expression engines. Some patterns can cause exponentially bad performance. Often these patterns involve one quantified term nested withing another quantifier, such as "(a*)*", although in many cases, the problem is harder to spot. Beware of patterns that have nested quantifiers.